By Carl Jamie Simple S. Bordeos
Research and Human Development Center
Christ the King College, Calbayog City
Together with other Lavezares youth who desire to see and read the past of their beloved hometown in the pages of history books, I researched on the important dates and other relevant information on the Samar's past in order for us to have a clearer picture of Samar many centuries ago and to write a better local history for the municipality and for the next generation. Below are some of those that I have researched, and I will continue to update this page every time I found new information to share. You may send your reactions, comments and suggestions to email@example.com.
On September 20, 1898, the religious in Samar and
On December 31, 1898, Philippine General Vicente Lukban and his revolutionary staff arrived in Catbalogan aboard the vessel San Nicolas with the appointment expeditionary chief of the South by President Emilio Aguinaldo. General Lukban was also appointed as the Political Military Governor (first Filipino Governor) of Samar Province, which was composed of 40 pueblos, and these were: Catbalogan, Jiabong, Paranas, San Sebastian, Calbiga, Pinabacdao, Villareal, Zumarraga, Santa Rita, Basey, Balangiga, Quinapundan, Salcedo, Mercedes, Guiuan, Oras, Paric (now Dolores), Tubig (now Taft), Sulat, San Julian, Borongan, Lanang (now Llorente), Hernani, Palapag, Laoang, Catubig, Pambujan, Bobon, Lavezares, Mondragon, Catarman, Capul, La Granja (now Allen), Weyler (Tinambacan), Calbayog, Sto. Niño, Oquendo, Gandara, Sta. Margarita, and Tarangnan.(NOTE: My reference here is the 'Balangiga Conflict Revisited' of UP Prof. Rolando O. Borrinaga because in Calbayog Coffee-table Book, Gen. Lukban and party arrived in CALBAYOG on the same date. But I would believe that he arrived in Catbalogan than Calbayog because the former was the capital town of Samar island.)
On January 3 to February 25, 1899, Junta Magnas were held in 40 towns in
On January 4, 1899,General Lukban issued an order to the Presidentes of Calbayog and Oquendo to be vigilant of their coastal areas and rivers and to report any untoward incidents. (Probably, Lavezares had also received the same instruction given the fact that Lavezares also had coastal areas - CJS Bordeos)
On January 25, 1899, a bandillo was made in all sitios, visitas and barrios of Calbayog, Oquendo and Weyler informing the residents of the order of General Lukban that all men and women, 18 years old and above, will have to pay a cedula personal of four pesos and a contribucion de guerra of six pesos. (Probably, this incident happened also in other pueblos including Lavezares - CJS Bordeos)
On February 1899, General Lukban ordered the inhabitants to light a parol or lamparas in their windows (tarambuan) as a sign of patriotism and obedience to the Republic of the
Added the following on February 19, 2009:
Between 1899-1900, General Lukban divided the entire island into three area commands. Col. Narciso Abuke was assigned as area commander for northern Samar, Col. Claro Guevara was assigned area commander for western Samar, and Capt. Eugenio Daza was assigned area commander for southeastern Samar.
Samar had an accounted population of 244,781 living in 40 pueblos (towns or municipalities) in 1896 with an annual growth rate of 2.0 percent from 1884 to 1896. But in 1903 US Census figures for Samar, it showed that it had only a population of 266,237. Though, there was an increase of 21,456 between 1896 and 1903, it could be calculated that the entire island probably incurred a net population loss of about 15,000.
On October 1901 to January 1902, US military authorities retaliated with a kill and burn policy to take back Samar. Brig. Gen. Jacob H. Smith gave orders to kill anybody capable of bearing arms (specifically, 10 years old and above) to reduce Samar into a “howling wilderness.” The campaign was blamed for the alleged disappearance of at least 50,000 people in Samar. (Probably, this was the main reason why there was a net population loss of about 15,000 people in Samar in 1903)
The Philippine Commission reported in 1903 that of the 40 pueblos, 23 have been reduced and burned completely to ashes by the American forces. Four were partly destroyed (Catbalogan, Capul, Catarman and Basey). Only a total of 13 pueblos were “respected”: Tarangnan, Sto. Niño, Calbayog, Bobon, Laoang, Palapag, Mercedes, Guiuan, Santa Rita, Villareal, Calbiga, Jiabong and Zumarraga. (If this is the case, Lavezares was one of the 23 pueblos burned completely to ashes by the American forces)